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    The stranger who changed my lifeIt was a sunny morning in the spring of 1966. I was driving a taxi, looking for a custom

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    The stranger who changed my lifeIt was a sunny morning in the spring of 1966. I was driving a taxi, looking for a custom

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    The stranger who changed my lifeIt was a sunny morning in the spring of 1966. I was driving a taxi, looking for a custom

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  • (单选题)

    The stranger who changed my lifeIt was a sunny morning in the spring of 1966. I was driving a taxi, looking for a custom

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  • (单选题)

    The stranger who changed my lifeIt was a sunny morning in the spring of 1966. I was driving a taxi, looking for a custom

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  • (单选题)

    The stranger who changed my lifeIt was a sunny morning in the spring of 1966. I was driving a taxi, looking for a custom

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  • (单选题)

    The stranger who changed my lifeIt was a sunny morning in the spring of 1966. I was driving a taxi, looking for a custom

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  • (单选题)

    The stranger who changed my lifeIt was a sunny morning in the spring of 1966. I was driving a taxi, looking for a custom

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  • (单选题)

    The stranger who changed my lifeIt was a sunny morning in the spring of 1966. I was driving a taxi, looking for a custom

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  • (单选题)

    The stranger who changed my lifeIt was a sunny morning in the spring of 1966. I was driving a taxi, looking for a custom

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By 1991 the level of foreign indebtedness has drastically altered the role that many developing . countries play in the world trading system. Imports had been severely cut back and there was evidence of a scramble to export additional products, such as timber(木材),at heavy cost to the environment. Debt had emerged as the biggest single obstacle to development, with about 50 developing countries carrying a severe debt burden, over half of them in Africa.At the end of 1990, developing countries owed $1,280 billion to Western countries, international aid agencies, the IMF, and banks. Their yearly earnings from international trade were under $1,000 billion ; the overall debt of developing countries was therefore mdre than the value of their exports. To service that debt—to pay interest and repay part of the capital—cost developing countries §143 .5 billion in 1990. They received $85 billion in aid and investment from abroad, thus paying richer countries nearly $60 billion more than they received. New aids and investment was wiped out by past debt. In 1991, according to OCED figures, the severely indebted low-income countries paid a higher proportion of their export revenue on debt service than at any time during the 1980s—31 .3% of such revenues, compared with 23. 8% in the 1980s.Heavy debt burden has greatly blocked economy growth of the developing countries. By 1991 the level of foreign indebtedness has drastically altered the role that many developing . countries play in the world trading system. Imports had been severely cut back and there was evidence of a scramble to export additional products, such as timber(木材),at heavy cost to the environment. Debt had emerged as the biggest single obstacle to development, with about 50 developing countries carrying a severe debt burden, over half of them in Africa.At the end of 1990, developing countries owed $1,280 billion to Western countries, international aid agencies, the IMF, and banks. Their yearly earnings from international trade were under $1,000 billion ; the overall debt of developing countries was therefore mdre than the value of their exports. To service that debt—to pay interest and repay part of the capital—cost developing countries §143 .5 billion in 1990. They received $85 billion in aid and investment from abroad, thus paying richer countries nearly $60 billion more than they received. New aids and investment was wiped out by past debt. In 1991, according to OCED figures, the severely indebted low-income countries paid a higher proportion of their export revenue on debt service than at any time during the 1980s—31 .3% of such revenues, compared with 23. 8% in the 1980s.Debt problems are especially severe in Africa. By 1991 the level of foreign indebtedness has drastically altered the role that many developing . countries play in the world trading system. Imports had been severely cut back and there was evidence of a scramble to export additional products, such as timber(木材),at heavy cost to the environment. Debt had emerged as the biggest single obstacle to development, with about 50 developing countries carrying a severe debt burden, over half of them in Africa.At the end of 1990, developing countries owed $1,280 billion to Western countries, international aid agencies, the IMF, and banks. Their yearly earnings from international trade were under $1,000 billion ; the overall debt of developing countries was therefore mdre than the value of their exports. To service that debt—to pay interest and repay part of the capital—cost developing countries §143 .5 billion in 1990. They received $85 billion in aid and investment from abroad, thus paying richer countries nearly $60 billion more than they received. New aids and investment was wiped out by past debt. In 1991, according to OCED figures, the severely indebted low-income countries paid a higher proportion of their export revenue on debt service than at any time during the 1980s—31 .3% of such revenues, compared with 23. 8% in the 1980s.In some developing countries half of the export revenue is used to service the debt. By 1991 the level of foreign indebtedness has drastically altered the role that many developing . countries play in the world trading system. Imports had been severely cut back and there was evidence of a scramble to export additional products, such as timber(木材),at heavy cost to the environment. Debt had emerged as the biggest single obstacle to development, with about 50 developing countries carrying a severe debt burden, over half of them in Africa.At the end of 1990, developing countries owed $1,280 billion to Western countries, international aid agencies, the IMF, and banks. Their yearly earnings from international trade were under $1,000 billion ; the overall debt of developing countries was therefore mdre than the value of their exports. To service that debt—to pay interest and repay part of the capital—cost developing countries §143 .5 billion in 1990. They received $85 billion in aid and investment from abroad, thus paying richer countries nearly $60 billion more than they received. New aids and investment was wiped out by past debt. In 1991, according to OCED figures, the severely indebted low-income countries paid a higher proportion of their export revenue on debt service than at any time during the 1980s—31 .3% of such revenues, compared with 23. 8% in the 1980s.Developing countries export timber in order to pay the debt. However, even as the government promotes growth as a national priority, it worries about going too far. Inflation has recently climbed back into double digits,and the press is issuing strident warnings, urging restraint on buyers and sellers alike. Rapid development is overwhelming China's antique transport networks.Energy brownouts are a regular occurrence in Guangdong and Shanghai. Now Beijing has cut this year's growth target from 10 to 5 percent,in an effort to keep the economy from careering out of control just as it was cut back in 1989 and 1990 when it overheated. "We need a smooth transition into another system,'‘ says the head of a research institute in Shanghai. "But no one in the world has a design we can use, so we just have to experiment. ” Even 5 percent growth a year doubles an economy in 10 years,China9 s “new man” may well find himself astride one of the world9 s largest economies in the 21st century. And the rest of the world will look foolish if it lets itself be caught by surprise.As there is no example for us to follow,China needs to cross the river by feeling the stone underfoot in our reforms. However, even as the government promotes growth as a national priority, it worries about going too far. Inflation has recently climbed back into double digits,and the press is issuing strident warnings, urging restraint on buyers and sellers alike. Rapid development is overwhelming China's antique transport networks.Energy brownouts are a regular occurrence in Guangdong and Shanghai. Now Beijing has cut this year's growth target from 10 to 5 percent,in an effort to keep the economy from careering out of control just as it was cut back in 1989 and 1990 when it overheated. "We need a smooth transition into another system,'‘ says the head of a research institute in Shanghai. "But no one in the world has a design we can use, so we just have to experiment. ” Even 5 percent growth a year doubles an economy in 10 years,China9 s “new man” may well find himself astride one of the world9 s largest economies in the 21st century. And the rest of the world will look foolish if it lets itself be caught by surprise.The inflation rate is as high as 9 percent. However, even as the government promotes growth as a national priority, it worries about going too far. Inflation has recently climbed back into double digits,and the press is issuing strident warnings, urging restraint on buyers and sellers alike. Rapid development is overwhelming China's antique transport networks.Energy brownouts are a regular occurrence in Guangdong and Shanghai. Now Beijing has cut this year's growth target from 10 to 5 percent,in an effort to keep the economy from careering out of control just as it was cut back in 1989 and 1990 when it overheated. "We need a smooth transition into another system,'‘ says the head of a research institute in Shanghai. "But no one in the world has a design we can use, so we just have to experiment. ” Even 5 percent growth a year doubles an economy in 10 years,China9 s “new man” may well find himself astride one of the world9 s largest economies in the 21st century. And the rest of the world will look foolish if it lets itself be caught by surprise.China's transport system is a delicate piece of antique that has great value and deserves meticulous care. However, even as the government promotes growth as a national priority, it worries about going too far. Inflation has recently climbed back into double digits,and the press is issuing strident warnings, urging restraint on buyers and sellers alike. Rapid development is overwhelming China's antique transport networks.Energy brownouts are a regular occurrence in Guangdong and Shanghai. Now Beijing has cut this year's growth target from 10 to 5 percent,in an effort to keep the economy from careering out of control just as it was cut back in 1989 and 1990 when it overheated. "We need a smooth transition into another system,'‘ says the head of a research institute in Shanghai. "But no one in the world has a design we can use, so we just have to experiment. ” Even 5 percent growth a year doubles an economy in 10 years,China9 s “new man” may well find himself astride one of the world9 s largest economies in the 21st century. And the rest of the world will look foolish if it lets itself be caught by surprise.The government is persuading buyers and sellers to restrain themselves in their behavior. However, even as the government promotes growth as a national priority, it worries about going too far. Inflation has recently climbed back into double digits,and the press is issuing strident warnings, urging restraint on buyers and sellers alike. Rapid development is overwhelming China's antique transport networks.Energy brownouts are a regular occurrence in Guangdong and Shanghai. Now Beijing has cut this year's growth target from 10 to 5 percent,in an effort to keep the economy from careering out of control just as it was cut back in 1989 and 1990 when it overheated. "We need a smooth transition into another system,'‘ says the head of a research institute in Shanghai. "But no one in the world has a design we can use, so we just have to experiment. ” Even 5 percent growth a year doubles an economy in 10 years,China9 s “new man” may well find himself astride one of the world9 s largest economies in the 21st century. And the rest of the world will look foolish if it lets itself be caught by surprise.The government intends to develop its economy while keeping the inflation in check. Starting from the mid-1990s,the international financial crisis has hit almost the whole world. The global financial system is breaking apart and it is hurtling ever more national economies in the abyss (深渊)with it. In order to earn foreign exchange, the economies are forced to dump the rest of their production onto the shrinking world market at bargain-basement prices. That is why the average prices of raw materials are currently at their lowest level since the mid-1970s. But it was not only the prices for raw materials that collapsed ; collapsing prices and reduced demand has also hit trade in automobiles, ships, chemical products, and computer chips. Now it is hitting the core of the Western industrial countries, which are heavily export-dependent.Looking at world economic developments from the west European point of view, the gale warnings are up. East Asia,which had accounted for more than half of the additional worldwide demand for industrial goods of all kinds since the beginning of 1990s,has largely dropped away as an importer.The supposed land of economic miracles of the past year,the United States,which increased its imports from Germany in 1997 by 30% ,is finally showing the traces of the global economic collapse. On Nov. 8,1998 , representatives of the US government threaten the European Union with trade war. They warned that a u protectionist firen would take hold in the United States if the European were not willing to massively reduce their trade surplus. US representatives had made similar threats against Japan one year before. TTie backdrop of these threats is,of course,the explosive growth of the US balance of payments deficit.The trade war against Japan had successfully decreased theUS'stradedeficit. Starting from the mid-1990s,the international financial crisis has hit almost the whole world. The global financial system is breaking apart and it is hurtling ever more national economies in the abyss (深渊)with it. In order to earn foreign exchange, the economies are forced to dump the rest of their production onto the shrinking world market at bargain-basement prices. That is why the average prices of raw materials are currently at their lowest level since the mid-1970s. But it was not only the prices for raw materials that collapsed ; collapsing prices and reduced demand has also hit trade in automobiles, ships, chemical products, and computer chips. Now it is hitting the core of the Western industrial countries, which are heavily export-dependent.Looking at world economic developments from the west European point of view, the gale warnings are up. East Asia,which had accounted for more than half of the additional worldwide demand for industrial goods of all kinds since the beginning of 1990s,has largely dropped away as an importer.The supposed land of economic miracles of the past year,the United States,which increased its imports from Germany in 1997 by 30% ,is finally showing the traces of the global economic collapse. On Nov. 8,1998 , representatives of the US government threaten the European Union with trade war. They warned that a u protectionist firen would take hold in the United States if the European were not willing to massively reduce their trade surplus. US representatives had made similar threats against Japan one year before. TTie backdrop of these threats is,of course,the explosive growth of the US balance of payments deficit.The US economy was not influenced by the financial crisis. Starting from the mid-1990s,the international financial crisis has hit almost the whole world. The global financial system is breaking apart and it is hurtling ever more national economies in the abyss (深渊)with it. In order to earn foreign exchange, the economies are forced to dump the rest of their production onto the shrinking world market at bargain-basement prices. That is why the average prices of raw materials are currently at their lowest level since the mid-1970s. But it was not only the prices for raw materials that collapsed ; collapsing prices and reduced demand has also hit trade in automobiles, ships, chemical products, and computer chips. Now it is hitting the core of the Western industrial countries, which are heavily export-dependent.Looking at world economic developments from the west European point of view, the gale warnings are up. East Asia,which had accounted for more than half of the additional worldwide demand for industrial goods of all kinds since the beginning of 1990s,has largely dropped away as an importer.The supposed land of economic miracles of the past year,the United States,which increased its imports from Germany in 1997 by 30% ,is finally showing the traces of the global economic collapse. On Nov. 8,1998 , representatives of the US government threaten the European Union with trade war. They warned that a u protectionist firen would take hold in the United States if the European were not willing to massively reduce their trade surplus. US representatives had made similar threats against Japan one year before. TTie backdrop of these threats is,of course,the explosive growth of the US balance of payments deficit.East Asia countries kept on importing more under the international financial crisis. Starting from the mid-1990s,the international financial crisis has hit almost the whole world. The global financial system is breaking apart and it is hurtling ever more national economies in the abyss (深渊)with it. In order to earn foreign exchange, the economies are forced to dump the rest of their production onto the shrinking world market at bargain-basement prices. That is why the average prices of raw materials are currently at their lowest level since the mid-1970s. But it was not only the prices for raw materials that collapsed ; collapsing prices and reduced demand has also hit trade in automobiles, ships, chemical products, and computer chips. Now it is hitting the core of the Western industrial countries, which are heavily export-dependent.Looking at world economic developments from the west European point of view, the gale warnings are up. East Asia,which had accounted for more than half of the additional worldwide demand for industrial goods of all kinds since the beginning of 1990s,has largely dropped away as an importer.The supposed land of economic miracles of the past year,the United States,which increased its imports from Germany in 1997 by 30% ,is finally showing the traces of the global economic collapse. On Nov. 8,1998 , representatives of the US government threaten the European Union with trade war. They warned that a u protectionist firen would take hold in the United States if the European were not willing to massively reduce their trade surplus. US representatives had made similar threats against Japan one year before. TTie backdrop of these threats is,of course,the explosive growth of the US balance of payments deficit.Economy of the Western industrial countries highly dependedon theirexport. Starting from the mid-1990s,the international financial crisis has hit almost the whole world. The global financial system is breaking apart and it is hurtling ever more national economies in the abyss (深渊)with it. In order to earn foreign exchange, the economies are forced to dump the rest of their production onto the shrinking world market at bargain-basement prices. That is why the average prices of raw materials are currently at their lowest level since the mid-1970s. But it was not only the prices for raw materials that collapsed ; collapsing prices and reduced demand has also hit trade in automobiles, ships, chemical products, and computer chips. Now it is hitting the core of the Western industrial countries, which are heavily export-dependent.Looking at world economic developments from the west European point of view, the gale warnings are up. East Asia,which had accounted for more than half of the additional worldwide demand for industrial goods of all kinds since the beginning of 1990s,has largely dropped away as an importer.The supposed land of economic miracles of the past year,the United States,which increased its imports from Germany in 1997 by 30% ,is finally showing the traces of the global economic collapse. On Nov. 8,1998 , representatives of the US government threaten the European Union with trade war. They warned that a u protectionist firen would take hold in the United States if the European were not willing to massively reduce their trade surplus. US representatives had made similar threats against Japan one year before. TTie backdrop of these threats is,of course,the explosive growth of the US balance of payments deficit."Bargain-basement prices" means high prices. Culture differences are sometimes ignored in marfceting campaigns. Culture awareness in marketing is a lot more than careful translation of your products. There are subtleties and nuances(细微差别) to every culture. Almost all people wouldn't be able to list the rules of their own culture ; they certainly know when those rules are violated.In Japan ,for example, a major household products company spent many millions of dollars on a marketing campaign in advance of introducing its laundry detergent(清洁剂).Nevertheless, when the detergent was made available, sales were miniscule. In fact, few shops stocked the soap. Non-tariff trade barriers? No,it was something much simpler. The typically American ularge,economy-sizedr boxes were far too big for the tiny Japanese retail establishments. And Japanese housewives don't usually have cars—they walk to the stores and carry their purchase home,to very small living spaces.It can be a big mistake to assume a Pan-Asia market (泛亚市场)or a “Latin American” or “Europeann” buyer. Neighboring cultures elsewhere don't necessarily share buying preferences any more than a US buyer does with a Mexico consumer. Furthermore, national borders don' t always delineate (描绘)buying behavior ; regional patterns can be just as strong.Perhaps buying preferences are quite different among national borders. Culture differences are sometimes ignored in marfceting campaigns. Culture awareness in marketing is a lot more than careful translation of your products. There are subtleties and nuances(细微差别) to every culture. Almost all people wouldn't be able to list the rules of their own culture ; they certainly know when those rules are violated.In Japan ,for example, a major household products company spent many millions of dollars on a marketing campaign in advance of introducing its laundry detergent(清洁剂).Nevertheless, when the detergent was made available, sales were miniscule. In fact, few shops stocked the soap. Non-tariff trade barriers? No,it was something much simpler. The typically American ularge,economy-sizedr boxes were far too big for the tiny Japanese retail establishments. And Japanese housewives don't usually have cars—they walk to the stores and carry their purchase home,to very small living spaces.It can be a big mistake to assume a Pan-Asia market (泛亚市场)or a “Latin American” or “Europeann” buyer. Neighboring cultures elsewhere don't necessarily share buying preferences any more than a US buyer does with a Mexico consumer. Furthermore, national borders don' t always delineate (描绘)buying behavior ; regional patterns can be just as strong.A US buyer has the same buying behavior as a Mexico consumer. Culture differences are sometimes ignored in marfceting campaigns. Culture awareness in marketing is a lot more than careful translation of your products. There are subtleties and nuances(细微差别) to every culture. Almost all people wouldn't be able to list the rules of their own culture ; they certainly know when those rules are violated.In Japan ,for example, a major household products company spent many millions of dollars on a marketing campaign in advance of introducing its laundry detergent(清洁剂).Nevertheless, when the detergent was made available, sales were miniscule. In fact, few shops stocked the soap. Non-tariff trade barriers? No,it was something much simpler. The typically American ularge,economy-sizedr boxes were far too big for the tiny Japanese retail establishments. And Japanese housewives don't usually have cars—they walk to the stores and carry their purchase home,to very small living spaces.It can be a big mistake to assume a Pan-Asia market (泛亚市场)or a “Latin American” or “Europeann” buyer. Neighboring cultures elsewhere don't necessarily share buying preferences any more than a US buyer does with a Mexico consumer. Furthermore, national borders don' t always delineate (描绘)buying behavior ; regional patterns can be just as strong.Japanese consumers usually like large boxes because they are lower in prices. Culture differences are sometimes ignored in marfceting campaigns. Culture awareness in marketing is a lot more than careful translation of your products. There are subtleties and nuances(细微差别) to every culture. Almost all people wouldn't be able to list the rules of their own culture ; they certainly know when those rules are violated.In Japan ,for example, a major household products company spent many millions of dollars on a marketing campaign in advance of introducing its laundry detergent(清洁剂).Nevertheless, when the detergent was made available, sales were miniscule. In fact, few shops stocked the soap. Non-tariff trade barriers? No,it was something much simpler. The typically American ularge,economy-sizedr boxes were far too big for the tiny Japanese retail establishments. And Japanese housewives don't usually have cars—they walk to the stores and carry their purchase home,to very small living spaces.It can be a big mistake to assume a Pan-Asia market (泛亚市场)or a “Latin American” or “Europeann” buyer. Neighboring cultures elsewhere don't necessarily share buying preferences any more than a US buyer does with a Mexico consumer. Furthermore, national borders don' t always delineate (描绘)buying behavior ; regional patterns can be just as strong.The detergent was popular in Japan. Culture differences are sometimes ignored in marfceting campaigns. Culture awareness in marketing is a lot more than careful translation of your products. There are subtleties and nuances(细微差别) to every culture. Almost all people wouldn't be able to list the rules of their own culture ; they certainly know when those rules are violated.In Japan ,for example, a major household products company spent many millions of dollars on a marketing campaign in advance of introducing its laundry detergent(清洁剂).Nevertheless, when the detergent was made available, sales were miniscule. In fact, few shops stocked the soap. Non-tariff trade barriers? No,it was something much simpler. The typically American ularge,economy-sizedr boxes were far too big for the tiny Japanese retail establishments. And Japanese housewives don't usually have cars—they walk to the stores and carry their purchase home,to very small living spaces.It can be a big mistake to assume a Pan-Asia market (泛亚市场)or a “Latin American” or “Europeann” buyer. Neighboring cultures elsewhere don't necessarily share buying preferences any more than a US buyer does with a Mexico consumer. Furthermore, national borders don' t always delineate (描绘)buying behavior ; regional patterns can be just as strong.Advertising and coupons are examples of marketing campaigns. 经济特区